• The present perfect refers to a time period from some point in the past to the present time.
• The present perfect`s form is:
Have or has + the past participate of the verb
EX. She has lived in the Canada for six years.
• The negative form:
Subject + have or has+ not +the past participate of the verb
EX. She has not lived in the Canada for six years.
• The question form:
Have or has + subject + the past participate of the verb
EX. Has she lived in the Canada for six years?
• There are two types of present perfect action:
1. Action that begins in the past and continues to the present.
EX. Mr. Green has owned a bookstore for seventeen years.
2. Action that is completed before the present.
EX. Mrs. Barbra`s daughter has bought a new house.
• Words often used to show continued action from the past to the present are:
Since, for, up to the present, until now, so far, for the past hour, for the past few days, in a long time, for a short time, in quite a while, all day, all week, lately.
• Use FOR to show duration of time.
EX. He has lived in the Germany for six years.
• Use SINCE in a phrase or a clause to show when the action began
She has studied French since March. (Phrase)
She has studied French since she arrived. (The past tense is used in the “since clause”)
1. How long have you taken piano lessons?
2. Since he graduated from college, he`s (he has) attended every reunion.
3. For the past few nights he has slept on the floor.
4. Lately, the company has had financial problems.
• In present perfect we are not told when the action occurred, the time of the action is unimportant. The intention is simply to state that an action took place one or more time, often it is implied that the action may occur again in the future.
• Words commonly used are:
Many times, several times, once, twice, three times etc., ever, finally, just, already, recently
1. Have you flown on a plane only once?
2. Computers have become smaller and easier to use.
3. Engineers have just repaired one of the damaged bridges.
4. The have eaten in that garden restaurant many times.